The mission of the Faculty is a derivative of that of the University which is to “develop world-class human resources and capabilities to meet national development needs and global challenges through quality teaching, learning, research and knowledge dissemination”. In fulfillment of this mission, the Faculty is to make teaching, research and extension activities in the social sciences more relevant to the development needs of Ghanaian society in particular and the world in general through the offering of attractive, innovative and demand-driven programmes.

The Faculty consists of the following nine teaching departments:
Geography and Resource Development
Information Studies
Political Science
Social Work
There are other departments which are not directly under the Faculty but which for purposes of admission of students are listed by the University of Ghana Statutes as being part of the Faculty. They are: Computer Science, Home Science, Mathematics, Statistics and the School of Nursing, which used to be the tenth department under the Faculty but was hived-off in July 2003 as a School under the College of Health Science.

In addition to the teaching departments, the Faculty is responsible for approving the academic programmes and handling application for appointment and promotion of the academic staff of the following institutes, school and centres:
Institute of Adult Education (IAE)
Institute of African Studies (IAS)
Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER)
Regional Institute for Population Studies (RIPS)
School of Communication Studies (SCS)
Legon Centre for International Affairs (LECIA)
Centre for Social Policy Studies (CSPC)
Centre for Distance Education
Centre for Gender Studies and Advocacy.
The Faculty is the largest in terms of student population with a total of about 18,610 degree and non-degree students and 778 graduate students. There are 204 full-time and part-time teaching faculty.